A research hypothesis is an important part of any research project of a Senior High School student in the Philippines. It helps to focus the research and ensures that the results are relevant to the question being asked. Without a hypothesis, it can be challenging to know what to look for in the data, or how to interpret the results.
What is a Hypothesis in Research?
A hypothesis is a tentative explanation or answer to a research question regarding variables, their relationships, and other relevant facts. There is always an outcome to research. You may, however, hypothesize, infer, propose, or speculate regarding research-related facts. It is inferential reasoning that leads you to guess something based not only on your experience or factual knowledge but also on the logical conclusions drawn from other research studies. To determine whether a hypothesis is true or false, it must be subjected to analytic examination.
What is the Importance of Hypothesis in Research
Some researchers find the hypothesis essential because of the following reasons:
- A research hypothesis guides you on which aspect of the research to focus on. It provides clarity to the research problem and research objectives.
- It provides opportunities to prove the relationship between variables.
- A research hypothesis gives the right direction for the research. It identifies the population of the research study that is to be investigated or examined. It facilitates data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation.
- It outlines your thoughts on your manner of summarizing the results and of explaining the conclusions.
- It pushes for an empirical study to prove the existence of the relationship between variables and the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Difference Between Hypothesis and Research Questions
In the scientific method, one of the experimental research’s first steps is to develop research questions and hypotheses. Both are related to your study but are not precisely the same. It is very easy to mix up research questions and hypotheses. A research question is a question you are trying to answer when you research a topic or write a research report. A hypothesis, on the other hand, is a statement that can be proved or disproved. You can make a hypothesis out of a research question by changing it into a statement.
Their difference lies in the amount of stock knowledge you have about the focus of your study. You can make hypotheses if you have read a lot about the research topic and know a lot about the variables and other facts that are important to the research—otherwise, form research questions. In any case, these two types of inferential thinking aim to come up with possible or likely answers or solutions to the problem the study is trying to solve. Your research or investigation results show whether the hypotheses are right, wrong, or partly right.
Categories of Hypotheses
A hypothesis is a rough explanation of a set of facts that can be tested by doing more research. There are two types, namely, the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The two premises exemplify the opposing statements in a statistical test.
A null hypothesis, symbolized by H0, states the absence of a relationship between the independent and dependent variables. It is, therefore, a statement to disprove that the independent variable (treatment, intervention, or condition) affects the dependent variable. Null hypothesis pertains to the claim that the means of the variables under study are equal or the values are zero. It is an assumption that the values observed have no change.
A. There is no significant relationship between the brain-boosting supplements and the student’s scores in examinations.
B. The brain-boosting supplements have nothing to do with the student’s score in the examination.
The opposite of the null hypothesis is the alternative hypothesis. Symbolized by Ha or H1, the alternative hypothesis states the relationship between the independent and dependent variables and that the first affects the second one. It is also called affirmative hypothesis as it claims that there is a significant change, effect, or relationship, not equal. not the same, and not equivalent to zero in the value of the means being studied.
A. There is a significant relationship between brain-boosting supplements and the student’s score in the examination.
B. The brain-boosting supplements significantly affect the student’s score in the examination.
What are the Different Types of Hypotheses?
The type of hypothesis to use is entirely up to you, the researcher. It does not, however, imply that selecting one of the following categories of the hypothesis will result in the best hypothesis because no hypothesis is superior to any other.
1. Theory-driven vs Data-driven hypothesis
A theory-driven hypothesis is one that is based on current theory to explain the relationship of variables and the impact of one variable on the other variables. However, if it is founded on previous study findings, it is a data-driven hypothesis.
2. Directional (one-tailed) vs. Non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis
The relationship between two variables as well as the link between these variables is stated in directional hypotheses. It also specifies the direction of the variable relationship.
Example: Children from low-income families, for example, have a greater inferiority complex than children from high-income ones.
In contrast, non-directional hypotheses state the relationship of variables but not the direction of the relationship.
Example: There is a difference in the inferiority complex level of children from low-income families and those from high-income families.
3. Descriptive vs Causal hypotheses
A descriptive hypothesis is a statement that specifies the relationship between two variables as a result of the influence of something; a causal hypothesis is one that specifies the cause-effect relationship. Causal hypotheses are used in true experimental or quasi-experimental research, such as a correlation study, whereas descriptive hypotheses are used in non-experimental research.
How to Write a Hypothesis in Research?
The first step in writing a successful hypothesis is planning. As with any other endeavor, the first step is to do some preliminary study on your own and learn as much as possible about the subject you intend to investigate. From then on, you’ll have all the information you need to determine precisely where you should direct your attention.
Remember that a hypothesis is a statement about the expected relationship between a set of variables. To determine whether or not your prediction is correct, it is up to you to draft a hypothesis and plan the investigation. Subjective and unsuitable judgments are frequently made during the hypothesis-building process. Your hypothesis must maintain an objective focus and tone throughout.
If you want to be skilled in formulating hypotheses, you should consider the following guidelines.
- Write a phrase that explicitly states your hypothesis.
- You can back up your hypotheses with ideas based on other theories, established facts, previous research, or your own accumulated knowledge and experience.
- Ensure that your hypotheses make logical sense in light of the research problem.
- Use your hypotheses to make inferences about the connections between and among the variables.
- Try to find out whether there is a way to put your theories to the test, analyze them, and dig more into the topic.
- Use concise wording that gets to the point while formulating hypotheses.
Research Hypothesis Examples
If you want to see the effectiveness of your hypothesis, you should compare it to the work of others in the same field. When it comes to developing a solid hypothesis for your research, there’s no need to start from scratch. As you do your research and get ready to formulate your hypothesis, you’ll inevitably come across competing theories. These examples can serve as guidelines for what makes a good research hypothesis and what doesn’t.
Some common examples are provided below to get you started.
It is hypothesized that the recognition of the right to physician-assisted suicide is a protection of individual civil liberties.
Eating fruits and vegetables will affect one’s human physical health.
Eating an apple each day, after the age of 60, will result in a reduction in the frequency of physician visits.
Budget airlines are more likely to receive more customer complaints.
Workplaces that offer flexible working hours report higher levels of employee job satisfaction than workplaces with fixed hours.
Increasing levels of stress among undergraduate students will result in decreasing academic performance.
Employees who have a better work-life balance will demonstrate higher productivity compared to those employees who do not have a good work-life balance.
There is a negative dependence between the frequency of social media usage and the attention span of users under 16 years of age.
Video games can have a negative impact on a person’s brain, vision, and memory.
The increase in mental health awareness in schools will result in a better understanding of mental health issues and possible ways to combat them among pupils and teachers.
Each of the above examples is concrete, observable, and quantifiable, and the prediction statement may be tested or proven to be untrue using ordinary scientific procedures. However, it should be remembered that your hypothesis will usually change as your research develops.